Manhattan Project’s secret city

http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/trinity-test

Manhattan Project
http://features.aol.com/video/manhattan-project%E2%80%99s-secret-city

http://books.simonandschuster.com/The-Girls-of-Atomic-City/Denise-Kiernan/9781451617535
Girls of Atomic City Audiobook Part 1 of 2

Girls of Atomic City Audiobook Part 2 of 2

Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb

“The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb” is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

The text for this section was adapted from the History Division, now Office of History and Heritage Resources, publication: F. G. Gosling, The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb (DOE/MA-0001; Washington: History Division, Department of Energy, January 1999).

Table of Contents

Foreward
Introduction:The Einstein Letter
Part I: Physics Background, 1919-1939
Part II: Early Government Support
Part III: The Manhattan Engineer District
Part IV: The Manhattan Engineer District in Operation
Part V: The Atomic Bomb and American Strategy
Part VI: The Manhattan District in Peacetime
Manhattan Project Chart
Notes
Select Bibliography
Manhattan Project Chronology

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7 responses to “Manhattan Project’s secret city

  1. Source: http://www.historynet.com/oak-ridge-the-town-the-atomic-bomb-built.htm

    Oak Ridge, the Town the Atomic Bomb Built

    In 1943, after graduating from Washington and Lee University, Bill Wilcox landed a coveted job as a government chemist and was sent to a city that didn’t exist.

    Oak Ridge, Tennessee, then known only as the Clinton Engineering Works, was conspicuously absent from any map. On 60,000 acres of farmland framed by the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains, it was one of the United States’ three secret cities—remote sites chosen by Manhattan Project director Gen. Leslie Groves, evacuated of their civilian inhabitants, and developed for the specific purpose of producing an atomic bomb. The men and women of the Clinton Engineering Works would help provide the material for the bomb. “I was told I would be working on uranium, and was sternly cautioned, ‘That’s the last time you will hear that word, and you must never speak it,'” Wilcox, now 87, recalled.

    Wilcox’s experience was atypical of the 75,000 government workers and construction personnel who populated the gated district from 1942 to 1945. Many had never heard of uranium until August 6, 1945—65 years ago—when radio broadcasts and newspapers announced that the most powerful weapon ever created had been dropped on a city in Japan, ending the war 22 days later.

    The Clinton Engineering Works opened its gates to the public in 1949, and was renamed Oak Ridge; today, its residents are keenly aware of their atomic heritage. The city is home to two of the most advanced neutron science research centers in the world, and the government is still the area’s major employer. But Oak Ridge has come a long way from the stretch of cultivated fields stippled with charmless industrial plants, prefabricated houses, and signs warning its denizens, “What you see here…when you leave here, let it stay here.” Trees that were planted in wartime have since grown tall, and the city is clean and well manicured. Still, the opportunities to celebrate its unique place in history are plentiful.

    Visitors to Oak Ridge should start their journey at the American Museum of Science and Energy, which provides a wonderful overview of the city’s wartime past. Its exceptional exhibit includes an original 576-square-foot flat-top house—the type of dwelling a scientist or plant worker would have moved into with his family during the war years. The boxy prefab building, composed of three sections, was designed for quick assembly; at the height of the Manhattan Project, a house went up every 30 minutes.

    Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill, the architecture firm commissioned to design the original communities within the Clinton Engineering Works, created several types of homes for Manhattan Project workers, including dormitories for single men and women. Many were made of cemesto, a mixture of cement and asbestos. House hunting was never an issue for new residents, who were assigned accommodations based on their position and rank. The houses were rented, not sold, and modifications were forbidden. Ten years after the war, the government put the houses up for sale. Bill Wilcox, now the Oak Ridge city historian, reports that 90 percent of those buildings are still in use throughout the city. Though homeowners have made changes—siding, eaves, paint—to distinguish their houses from the others, some Oak Ridge neighborhoods still retain an eerie, modular quality.

    A short distance from the American Museum of Science and Energy is A. K. Bissell Park, home of the Secret City Commemorative Walk, a recent and charming addition to the city from its Rotary Club. Located in a beautiful garden, the walk is a memorial to the individuals who came to Oak Ridge during the war. Stroll along the figure eight–shaped path and take in the bronze plaques offering stories of wartime life. Though the work was intense, the young residents had fun, too. Many of them, like Wilcox, were just out of college; the average age in the community during the war was only 27. Tennis courts, then the only paved surface, doubled as dance floors. Residents remember the time as one of excitement, enjoyment, and devotion to a common cause.

    Much of what originally brought people to Oak Ridge can still be seen: three of four plants used to produce material for the atomic bomb survive. These buildings are within 30 minutes of the city center, on what are today the sites of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Department of Energy East Tennessee Technology Park, and the Y-12 National Security Complex. On weekdays, the Department of Energy (DOE) operates a three-hour bus tour of these facilities, isolated in a 17-mile-long valley studded by parallel ridges—a major reason the spot was chosen for the Manhattan Project in the first place. If a catastrophic explosion occurred, the ridges would act as buffers between the plants.

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory was established in 1948 from the facility codenamed X-10, where plutonium was extracted from irradiated slugs of uranium, and encompasses the original graphite reactor. The exterior and interior of the building that houses the reactor are, as they were then, army green. No longer in service today, the facility is a well-preserved throwback to the days when it produced radioisotopes. With no air conditioning or heating, windows at the top provided the only airflow. Inside, visitors can stare into the giant face of the graphite reactor, which is pocked with more than 1,200 openings into which workers once inserted uranium slugs with long rods. The dark control room, cluttered with knobs, switches, and analog clocks and controls, seems simple and ancient compared with today’s sleek technology.

    From a nearby overlook, to the west on State Highway 58, you can see the original K-25 building—the plant where U-235, the fissionable uranium isotope, was separated from U-238, the heavier, more stable isotope, using a process called gaseous diffusion. It cost $500 million to build (the equivalent of more than $6 billion today), and when it was completed in 1945 it was one of the largest single-roofed buildings in the world.

    Dormant since 1987, the enormous U-shaped structure has deteriorated and is currently being torn down. It contains original equipment, some of which is still classified. The demolition will cost more than $1 billion and will take several more years, at which time the area will be used for industries in the Department of Energy’s Eastern Tennessee Technology Park. However, the government plans to preserve K-25’s Gaseous Diffusion Process Building along with some of its equipment, so future generations can learn of K-25’s World War II—and Cold War—era contributions.

    The closest a visitor can get to K-25 is via the Secret City Scenic Excursion Train, which follows a rail line that carried construction equipment and supplies in 1943 and 1944. Also visible on the route is a Tennessee Valley Authority substation from the 1940s, which helped generate the the massive amount of electricity required by the plants. The popular 12-mile roundtrip excursion runs the first and third Saturdays of summer months.

    The city’s third remaining Manhattan Project plant, Y-12, is a bustling DOE facility that still manufactures, manages, and stores nuclear materials. Aside from the New Hope Center for visitors with a small exhibit hall, access is restricted. But it is remarkable to think that Oak Ridge’s legacy continues today. On this site, beginning in 1943, workers created weapons-grade uranium using a process called electromagnetic isotope separation. Those who knew they were working with uranium were instructed to call it by a code name, tuballoy. One local story tells of a Y-12 scientist who, after seeing newspaper reports that the uranium in the Hiroshima bomb had come from Oak Ridge, was finally able to speak the name of the secret he kept since he first came to Tennessee and ran through the laboratory hallway screaming, “Uranium! Uranium!”

    That seems to be a common trait among the men and women who settled Oak Ridge: the eagerness to reveal, and preserve, the secrets of their atomic city.

  2. Carly Fiorina: Environmentalists To Blame For ‘Man-Made’ Drought In California
    Source: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/04/06/carly-fiorina-california-drought_n_7014468.html

    WASHINGTON — Former Hewlett Packard CEO Carly Fiorina on Monday blamed environmentalists for what she called a “man-made” drought in California, which has led to the state’s first water restrictions.

    “With different policies over the last 20 years, all of this could be avoided,” Fiorina, a likely 2016 Republican presidential contender, said in an interview with radio host Glenn Beck. “Despite the fact that California has suffered from droughts for millennia, liberal environmentalists have prevented the building of a single new reservoir or a single new water conveyance system over decades during a period in which California’s population has doubled.”

    Fiorina, California’s 2010 GOP nominee for U.S. Senate, said it was a “classic case of liberals being willing to sacrifice other people’s lives and livelihoods at the altar of their ideology. It is a tragedy.”

    The drought, now officially in its fourth year, prompted Gov. Jerry Brown (D) last week to order a 25 percent reduction in water consumption. The order does not apply to the agriculture industry, which consumes nearly 80 percent of the state’s water.

    Lawmakers in Congress and in the state legislature have proposed bills authorizing construction of new dams and reservoirs, citing the need to capture water that ends up in the ocean. They have been opposed by environmental groups, which argue the projects would endanger the state’s habitat and endangered species. Last year, House Republicans proposed pumping additional water to Southern California, but the bill failed under a veto threat from President Barack Obama.

    There is significant debate about whether the state has enough water left, at this point, to justify the cost of building new dams and reservoirs. According to The Sacramento Bee, some new reservoirs, wouldn’t supply significant new water.

    “There’s nothing magical in and of themselves to build a (reservoir) facility,” Lester Snow, the executive director of the California Water Foundation, told the Bee last year. “If we had two more surface storage facilities that we built 10 years ago — pick any of the two that people are talking about — they would both be very low right now. There’s a tendency to pull down our surface storage when we get mildly short of water.”

    NextGen Climate, the climate-focused political group run by billionaire environmentalist Tom Steyer, on Monday evening called Fiorina’s comments “irrational.”

    “For a science denier to opine that Democrats caused the drought in California is about as irrational as believing someone who failed at running a business in California and then failed as a candidate for office in California has any cause to be running for the highest office in the land,” Bobby Whithorne, the group’s spokesman, said in a statement.

    The Sierra Club, a national environmental group, disputed Fiorina’s assertion that more dams and reservoirs would have lessened the impact of the drought.

    “For more than 100 years, environmentalists have failed to stop the damming of nearly every significant river in California. And yet all of the hundreds of dams out there have done nothing to produce rain or snow pack over the last four years. That’s because you can’t store what’s not there,” said Kathryn Phillips, director of Sierra Club’s California chapter. “We simply don’t have rain or snow pack and are suffering the worst California drought since water agencies and weather trackers started keeping records.”

    “What we are seeing is exactly what climate scientists have predicted would happen in California with the onset of human-caused climate disruption: Weather and precipitation would become less predictable and droughts would become more frequent and more severe,” Phillips added.

    This post has been updated with comment from Sierra Club California.

  3. Vanaf:
    Gepubliceerd op 27 mrt. 2013

    Colin Powell’s email was hacked by “Guccifer” and reveal some interesting information about the Bohemian Grove. The same hacker got into George W. Bush’s sister’s email account and found some bizarre self-portraits the former president painted of himself.

  4. Source: http://www.veteranstoday.com/2009/06/18/secrets-of-the-manhattan-project-revealed/

    Secrets of the Manhattan Project Revealed!

    Posted by Veterans Today on June 18, 2009

    The History of the Manhattan Project

    (Nashville, TN) – At 5:30 a.m. on July 16, 1945 the age of the atom bomb began with the explosion of “the Gadget” and has since been a topic of fascination and fear. With fact-filled photo captions and chapter introductions written by Timothy Joseph, a senior scientist and project manager for the U.S. Department of Energy in Chicago, Historic Photos of the Manhattan Project showcases the efforts of thousands of Americans to forge a weapon that could end World War II.

    Watch the human story unfold in this rare collection of 200 photographs culled from the National Archives, the Oak Ridge Public Library, the United States Department of Energy, the Argonne National Laboratory, the archives of George Kerr, and the Library of Congress.

    From scenes of the work force assembled at production sites in Tennessee and Washington to the research and testing grounds of New Mexico to the devastation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Manhattan Project is captured in vivid black-and-white photography displayed in a large format. Timothy Joseph holds a Ph.D. in biology, which launched his 24-year career with the U.S. Department of Energy. His involvement in the assessment of radiation doses on past workers of the Department of Energy has been an integral part of his professional career. As a freelance technical writer and consultant, Joseph relies on this storehouse of knowledge acquired through his years in the field.

    Historic Photos of the Manhattan Project is part of Turner Publishing’s Historic Photos series. These books, which highlight the history of the great cities, legendary figures, and pivotal events across America, have been acclaimed as a staple in the collection of anyone who loves history.

    The History of the Manhattan Project

    (Nashville, TN) – At 5:30 a.m. on July 16, 1945 the age of the atom bomb began with the explosion of “the Gadget” and has since been a topic of fascination and fear. With fact-filled photo captions and chapter introductions written by Timothy Joseph, a senior scientist and project manager for the U.S. Department of Energy in Chicago, Historic Photos of the Manhattan Project showcases the efforts of thousands of Americans to forge a weapon that could end World War II.

    Watch the human story unfold in this rare collection of 200 photographs culled from the National Archives, the Oak Ridge Public Library, the United States Department of Energy, the Argonne National Laboratory, the archives of George Kerr, and the Library of Congress.

    From scenes of the work force assembled at production sites in Tennessee and Washington to the research and testing grounds of New Mexico to the devastation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Manhattan Project is captured in vivid black-and-white photography displayed in a large format. Timothy Joseph holds a Ph.D. in biology, which launched his 24-year career with the U.S. Department of Energy. His involvement in the assessment of radiation doses on past workers of the Department of Energy has been an integral part of his professional career. As a freelance technical writer and consultant, Joseph relies on this storehouse of knowledge acquired through his years in the field.

    Historic Photos of the Manhattan Project is part of Turner Publishing’s Historic Photos series. These books, which highlight the history of the great cities, legendary figures, and pivotal events across America, have been acclaimed as a staple in the collection of anyone who loves history.

    BUY THE BOOK AT AMAZON.COM

    manhattan6

    Ten Things to Know About
    Historic Photos of the Manhattan Project
    1. What time periods are covered?
    World War II era
    2. How many photographs does the book contain?
    Nearly 200 photographs are reproduced in black and white on heavy art paper
    3. What Archives were used to obtain images?
    National Archives, Oak Ridge Public Library, and the United States Department of Energy
    4. Who is the author?
    Timothy Joseph Ph. D.
    5. Where is the book available?
    All major and independent bookstores, Amazon.com, http://www.turnerpublishing.com
    6. What are some notable landmarks and/or historical figures featured in the book?
    Tinian Island Airfield, the Enola Gay, Colonel Tibbets, Ruins of Hiroshima, Ruins of Nagasaki, Julius Robert Oppenheimer, Albert Einstein, Elsa Gate
    Portal, Leslie R. Groves, the Y-12 Facility
    7. When will the book be released?
    May 2009
    8. What are the book specifications?
    10 x 10 inches, hardbound, smyth-sewn binding, 216 pages, ISBN-13: 978-1-59652-521-4
    9. Is the book part of a series/collection?
    Historic Photos of the Manhattan Project is part of Turner Publishing’s Historic Photos series of books that highlight cities, states, legendary figures,
    and pivotal events.
    10. What are others saying about the “Historic Photos Series”?
    “Historic Photos of Nashville—what a top quality book throughout! Over 200 beautifully printed pages, depicting scenes from Nashville history since the mid-1800s. These extraordinary old photographs have been found in various archives, and provide a great historical representation of the people, places, and events that have occurred in Nashville.” – Amazon.com

    ABOUT THE AUTHOR
    Timothy Joseph is a former high school teacher, college professor, and corporate manager and consultant. He holds a Ph.D. in biology, was a senior scientist and project manager for the U.S. Department of Energy for 24 years in Chicago, Illinois, and Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and is involved in the government assessment of radiation doses to past workers, many from the Manhattan Project. Tim is a freelance technical writer, consultant, and novelist with four published books. He gives creative writing talks to young people to instill interest in and awareness of the personal rewards of writing and reading. Tim lives in Knoxville with his wife, Marsha.

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